Author Lawrence Taylor
Eyewitness Identification

Eyewitness Identification

 

Part I: The Psychology of the Eyewitness

 

  • 1. Reliability of Eyewitness Identification
  • 1.1 – The Effect of Eyewitness Testimony
  • 1.2 – The Causes of False Identification
  • 1.3 – The Individual Witness Capability
    • 1.3.1 – Age
    • 1.3.2 – Sex
    • 1.3.3 – Race
    • 1.3.4 – Training
    • 1.3.5 – Anxiety Level
  • 2. Perception
    • 2.1 – The Physiological Factor: Sight
    • 2.2 – The Environmental Factor: Conditions of Observation
    • 2.3 – The Human Factor: Emotions and Attitudes
    • 2.4 – Perceiving People
      • 2.4.1 – Categorizing
      • 2.4.2 – Physiognomy
      • 2.4.3 – Transference of Memories
  • 3. Memory
    • 3.1 – Effect of Thought Processes on Memory
    • 3.2 – Effect of Intervening Information on Memory
    • 3.3 – Recall: The Psychology of Interrogation
    • 3.4 – Remembering Faces
      • 3.4.1 – Facial Features
      • 3.4.2 – Descriptions and Identification
      • 3.4.3 – Prosopagnosia
  • 4. Scientific Determination of Truth
    • 4.1 – Physiological Detection
      • 4.1.1 – The Polygraph
      • 4.1.2 – Voice-Stress Analysis
    • 4.2 – Inducing Truth and Recal
      • 4.2.1 – “Truth Serum”
      • 4.2.2 – Hypnosis
    • 4.3 – Psychological Detection
      • 4.3.1 – The Psychologist as Expert Witness
      • 4.3.2 – Psychological Testing of Witnesses

 

Part II: Pretrial Identification

 

  • 5. Police Procedures
    • 5.1 – Identification Methods
    • 5.2 – The Showup
    • 5.3 – The Lineup
      • 5.3.1 – Composition
      • 5.3.2 – Police Conduct of Lineup
    • 5.4 – Photographic Displays
    • 5.5 – Composites and Artists’ Sketches
    • 5.6 – Voice Identification
    • 6. The Right Against Self-Incrimination in Identification Proceedings
      • 6.1 – The Nature of the Right
      • 6.2 – Comment Upon Refusal to Appear in Lineup
    • 7. The Right to Counsel at Identification Proceedings
      • 7.1 – The Nature of the Right: Wade – Kirby
      • 7.2 – The Role of Counsel at Lineups
      • 7.3 – Substitute Counsel
      • 7.4 – Waiver of Counsel
      • 7.5 – The “Lawrence Lineup”
    • 8. Due Process: Fairness of Identification Procedures
      • 8.1 – Evolution of the Reliability Test: Stovall – Biggers
      • 8.2 – Admissibility of Suggestive Pretrial Identification: Gilbert – Brathwaite
      • 8.3 – Photographic Identification Standards: Simmons – Brathwaite
    • 9. Pretrial Defense Procedures
      • 9.1 – Discovery of Eyewitness Evidence
      • 9.2 – Deposing the Eyewitness
      • 9.3 – Conducting a Defense Lineup or Photographic Display

 

Part III: Identification in Trial

 

  • 10. Suppression of In-Court Identification
    • 10.1 – Issues, Burdens and Procedures
    • 10.2 – The Prosecutor’s Duty to Disclose: Agurs
    • 10.3 – Due Process: Effect of Suggestive Pretrial Identification on In-Court Identification
      • 10.3.1 – Fairness vs. Reliability
      • 10.3.2 – The “Independent Source” Rule
    • 10.4 – Denial of Counsel at Post-Indictment Lineup
    • 10.5 – Identification Arising from Illegal Search or Arrest: Crews
  • 11. Corroboration of Identification Testimony
    • 11.1 – Third-Party Corroboration and the “One Witness” Rule
    • 11.2 – Evidence of Prior Identification: “Bolstering”
      • 11.2.1 – Admissibility Generally: Hearsay
      • 11.2.2 – Suppressing Evidence of Prior Identification
  • 11.2.2.1 – Due Process and the Per Se Exclusionary Rule: Gilbert – Brathwaite
  • 11.2.2.2 – Denial of Counsel at Post-Indictment Lineup
  • 11.2.2.3 – Identification Tainted by Illegal Search or Arrest
  • 11.3 – The Cautionary Jury Instruction: Telfaire
  • 12. Cross-Examination
    • 12.1 – General Considerations
  • 12.1.1 – In-Court Lineups, Experiments, Demonstrations and the Use of Psychological Testimony
  • 12.1.2 – Restriction by Trial Judge of Cross-Examination: Denial of Confrontation
  • 12.2 – Establishing Suggestiveness of Pretrial Identification Procedures: Illustrative Cross-Examination
    • 12.2.1 – Cross-Examination at Hearing of Police Office Supervising Lineup
    • 12.2.2 – Cross-Examination at Hearing of Eyewitness at Lineup
  • 12.3 – Establishing Unreliability of Identification: Illustrative Cross-Examination
    • 12.3.1 – Cross-Examination at Trial of Eyewitness

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"Interesting and informative" - Trial Diplomacy Journal
"An excellent checklist for trial lawyers." - New York State Bar Journal